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Ben5463 Posted: Nov 11th 2010

Remembrance Day (also known as Poppy Day, Armistice Day or Veterans Day) is a memorial day observed in Commonwealth countries to remember the sacrifices of members of the armed forces and civilians in times of war, specifically since the First World War. This day, or alternative dates, are also recognised as special days for war remembrances in many non-Commonwealth countries.
Remembrance Day is observed on 11 November to recall the official end of World War I on that date in 1918, as the major hostilities of World War I were formally ended "at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month" of 1918 with the German signing of the Armistice. (Note that "at the 11th hour", refers to the passing of the 11th hour, or 11:00 am.)
The day was specifically dedicated by King George V, on 7 November 1919, to the observance of members of the armed forces who were killed during World War I. This was possibly done upon the suggestion of Edward George Honey to Wellesley Tudor Pole, who established two ceremonial periods of remembrance based on events in 1917.[1]
The red poppy has become a familiar emblem of Remembrance Day due to the poem In Flanders Fields. These poppies bloomed across some of the worst battlefields of Flanders in World War I, their brilliant red colour an appropriate symbol for the blood spilt in the war.
Contents [hide]
1 Name
2 Observance in the Commonwealth
2.1 Australia
2.2 Barbados
2.3 Bermuda
2.4 Canada
2.5 New Zealand
2.6 South Africa
2.7 United Kingdom
2.7.1 Northern Ireland
3 Observance in other Countries
3.1 France & Belgium
3.2 Germany
3.3 Hong Kong
3.4 Italy
3.5 Ireland
3.6 The Netherlands
3.7 Poland
3.8 United States
4 Poppies
4.1 Canada
4.2 Sri Lanka
4.3 United Kingdom
4.4 Other Countries
5 See also
6 Notes
7 References
8 External links

"Remembrance Day" is the primary designation for the day in many Commonwealth countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada. However, "Armistice Day" (the event it commemorates) also remains, often to differentiate the event from Remembrance Sunday, and is the primary designation used in New Zealand and France.
"Poppy Day" is also a popular term used, particularly in Malta and South Africa. Veterans Day also falls upon this day in the United States, yet many other allied nations have quite different Veterans Days.
Observance in the Commonwealth

Remembrance Day, London, 2006.
The common British, Canadian, South African, and ANZAC tradition includes either one or two minutes of silence at the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month (11:00 am, 11 November), as that marks the time (in the United Kingdom) when armistice became effective.
The Service of Remembrance in many Commonwealth countries generally includes the sounding of the "Last Post", followed by the period of silence, followed by the sounding of "The Rouse" (often mistakenly referred to as "Reveille"), and finished by a recitation of the "Ode of Remembrance". The "Flowers of the Forest", "O Valiant Hearts", "I Vow to Thee, My Country" and "Jerusalem" are often played during the service. Services also include wreaths laid to honour the fallen, a blessing, and national anthems.[2] Mozambique does not observe the Remembrance Day.
In Australia Remembrance Day is always observed on 11 November, although the day is not a public holiday. Services are held at 11am at war memorials and schools in suburbs and towns across the country, at which the "Last Post" is sounded by a bugler and a one-minute silence is observed. In recent decades, however, Remembrance Day has been partly eclipsed by ANZAC Day (25 April) as the national day of war commemoration.

The Cenotaph War Memorial in Bridgetown, Barbados. (2000)
In Barbados, Remembrance Day is not a public holiday. It is recognized as November 11, yet the parade and ceremonial events are carried out on Remembrance Sunday.[3] The day is celebrated to recognise the Barbadian soldiers who died fighting in the first and second world wars between 1914 to 1918 and 1939 to 1945. The parade is held at National Heroes' Square where a interdenominational service is held.[4] The Governor-General and Barbadian Prime Minister are among those who attend, along with other government dignitaries; and the heads of the police and military forces. During the main ceremony a gun salute, wreathes, and prayers are also performed at the war memorial Cenotaph at the heart of Heroes' Square in Bridgetown.

Remembrance Day Parade, Hamilton, Bermuda, 1991
In Bermuda, which sent the first colonial volunteer unit to the Western Front in 1915, and which had more people per capita in uniform during the Second World War than any other part of the Empire, Remembrance Day is still an important holiday. The parade in Hamilton had historically been a large and colourful one, as contingents from the Royal Navy, British Regular Army, the local Territorial units, the Canadian Forces, the US Army, Air Force, and Navy, and various cadet corps and other services were all contributed at one time or another to march with the veterans. Since the closing of British, Canadian, and American bases in 1995, the parade has barely grown smaller. In addition to the ceremony held in the City of Hamilton on Remembrance Day itself, marching to the Cenotaph (a smaller replica of the one in London), where wreathes are laid and orations made, a smaller military parade is also held in St. George's on the nearest Sunday to Remembrance Day.[5]
In Canada, Remembrance Day is a public holiday in all provinces and territories except Ontario, Quebec, and Manitoba. The official national ceremonies are held at the National War Memorial in Ottawa, presided over by the Governor General of Canada, any members of the Canadian Royal Family (such as Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, in 2009),[6] the prime minister, and other dignitaries, to the observance of the public. Typically, these events begin with the tolling of the Carillon in the Peace Tower, during which serving members of the Canadian Forces (CF) arrive at Confederation Square, followed by the Ottawa diplomatic corps, ministers of the Crown, special guests, the Royal Canadian Legion (RCL), the viceregal party, and, if present, the royal party. Before the start of the ceremony, four armed sentries and three sentinels (two flag sentinels and one nursing sister) are posted at the foot of the cenotaph.

Poppies are laid on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier on Remembrance Day in Ottawa
The arrival of the Queen or governor general is announced by a trumpeter sounding the "Alert", whereupon the monarch or viceroy is met by the Dominion President of the RCL and escorted to a dais to receive the Royal or Viceregal Salute, after which the national anthem, "O Canada", is played. The moment of remembrance begins with the bugling of "Last Post" immediately before 11:00 am, at which time the gun salute fires and the bells of the Peace Tower toll the hour. Another gun salute signals the end of the two minutes of silence, and cues the playing of a lament, and then the bugling of "The Rouse". A flypast of Canadian Air Command craft then occurs at the start of a 21 gun salute, upon the completion of which a choir sings "In Flanders Fields". The various parties then lay their wreaths at the base of the memorial; one wreath is set by the Silver Cross Mother, a recent recipient of the Memorial Cross, on behalf of all mothers who lost children in any of Canada's armed conflicts. The royal and/or viceregal group return to the dais to receive the playing of the Royal Anthem of Canada, "God Save the Queen", prior to the assembled Armed Forces personnel and veterans performing a march past in front of the royal and/or viceregal persons, bringing about the end of the official ceremonies.[7] A tradition of paying more personal tribute to the sacrifice of those who have served and lost their lives in defence of the country has emerged since erection of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at the War Memorial in 2000: after the official ceremony the general public place their poppies atop the tomb.

The military Remembrance Day parade in Ottawa
Similar ceremonies take place in provincial capitals across the country, officiated by the relevant lieutenant governor, as well as in other cities, towns, and even hotels or corporate headquarters. Schools will usually hold special assemblies for the first half of the day, or on the school day prior, with various presentations concerning the remembrance of the war dead. The largest indoor ceremony in Canada is currently held in Montreal, Quebec,[8] followed in size by that held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, with over 8,500 gathering in Credit Union Centre in 2008;[9] the ceremony participants include old guard (veterans), new guard (currently serving members of the CF), and sea, army, and air cadet units.
New Zealand
New Zealand's national day of remembrance is Anzac Day, 25 April.[10] "Poppy Day" usually occurs on the Friday before Anzac Day.[11] Armistice Day was observed in New Zealand between the world wars, although it was always secondary to Anzac Day. As in other countries, New Zealand's Armistice Day was converted to Remembrance Day after World War II, but this was not a success. By the mid 1950s the day was virtually ignored, even by churches and veterans' organisations.[12] A few ceremonies are still held on Remembrance Day, and also on 11 November.[13]
South Africa
In South Africa, Poppy Day is not a public holiday. It takes place on the Saturday nearest to Remembrance Day, though in Cape Town a Remembrance Service is still held on 11 November each year.[14] Commemoration ceremonies are usually held on the following Sunday, at which the "Last Post" is played by a bugler followed by the observation of a two-minute silence. The two largest commemoration ceremonies to mark the event in South Africa are held in Johannesburg at the Cenotaph (where it has been held for 84 consecutive years), and at the War Memorial at the Union Buildings in Pretoria. Many high schools hold Remembrance Day services to honour the past pupils who died in the two World Wars and the Border war. In addition, the South African Legion holds a street collection to gather funds to assist in the welfare work among military veterans.[14]
United Kingdom

Memorials outside London's Westminster Abbey for Remembrance Day, 2002.
In the United Kingdom, although two minutes of silence are observed on 11 November itself, the main observance is on the second Sunday of November, Remembrance Sunday. Ceremonies are held at local war memorials, usually organised by local branches of the Royal British Legion – an association for ex-servicemen. Typically, poppy wreaths are laid by representatives of the Crown, the armed forces, and local civic leaders, as well as by local organisations including ex-servicemen organisations, cadet forces, the Scouts, Guides, Boys' Brigade, St John Ambulance and the Salvation Army. The start and end of the silence is often also marked by the firing of a cannon. A minute's or two minutes' silence is also frequently incorporated into church services. Further wreath-laying ceremonies are observed at most war memorials across the UK at 11 am on the 11th of November, led by the Royal British Legion.[15] The beginning and end of the two minutes silence is often marked in large towns and cities by the firing of ceremonial cannon[16] and many employers, and businesses invite their staff and customers to observe the two minutes silence at 11:00 am.[17]
The First Two Minute Silence in London (11 November 1919) was reported in the Manchester Guardian on 12 November 1919:
The first stroke of eleven produced a magical effect. The tram cars glided into stillness, motors ceased to cough and fume, and stopped dead, and the mighty-limbed dray horses hunched back upon their loads and stopped also, seeming to do it of their own volition. Someone took off his hat, and with a nervous hesitancy the rest of the men bowed their heads also. Here and there an old soldier could be detected slipping unconsciously into the posture of 'attention'. An elderly woman, not far away, wiped her eyes, and the man beside her looked white and stern. Everyone stood very still ... The hush deepened. It had spread over the whole city and become so pronounced as to impress one with a sense of audibility. It was a silence which was almost pain ... And the spirit of memory brooded over it all.[18]

The Cenotaph at Whitehall, London on Remembrance Day 2004
The main national commemoration is held at Whitehall, in Central London, for dignitaries, the public, and ceremonial detachments from the armed forces and civilian uniformed services such as the Merchant Navy, Her Majesty's Coastguard, etc. Members of the British Royal Family walk through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office towards the Cenotaph, assembling to the right of the monument to wait for Big Ben to strike 11:00 am, and for the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery at Horse Guards Parade, to fire the cannon marking the commencement of the two minutes of silence. Following this, "Last Post" is sounded by the buglers of the Royal Marines. "The Rouse" is then sounded by the trumpeters of the Royal Air Force, after which wreaths are laid by the Queen and senior members of the Royal Family attending in military uniform and then, to "Beethoven's Funeral March" (composed by Johann Heinrich Walch), attendees in the following order: the Prime Minister; the leaders of the major political parties from all parts of the United Kingdom; Commonwealth High Commissioners to London, on behalf of their respective nations; the Foreign Secretary, on behalf of the British Dependencies; the First Sea Lord; the Chief of the General Staff; the Chief of the Air Staff; representatives of the merchant navy and Fishing Fleets and the merchant air service. Other members of the Royal Family usually watch the service from the balcony of the Foreign Office. The service is generally conducted by the Bishop of London, with a choir from the Chapels Royal, in the presence of representatives of all major faiths in the United Kingdom. Before the marching commences, the members of the Royal Family and public sing the national anthem before the Royal Delegation lead out after the main service.
Members of the Reserve Forces and cadet organisations join in with the marching, alongside volunteers from St John Ambulance, paramedics from the London Ambulance Service, and conflict veterans from World War II, the Falklands, Kosovo, Bosnia, Northern Ireland, other past conflicts and the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan. The last three British-resident veterans of World War I, Bill Stone, Henry Allingham, and Harry Patch, attended the 2008 ceremony but all died in 2009. After the service, there is a parade of veterans, who also lay wreaths at the foot of the Cenotaph as they pass, and a salute is taken by a member of the Royal Family at Horse Guards Parade.
In the United Kingdom, Armed Forces' Day (formerly Veterans' Day) is a separate commemoration, celebrated for the first time on 27 June 2009.
Northern Ireland
Remembrance Day is officially observed in Northern Ireland in the same way as in the rest of the United Kingdom. However the day has tended to be associated with the unionist community and ignored or opposed by Irish nationalists/republicans. The reason for this opposition is partly ideological and partly due to the actions of the British Army during "The Troubles" – especially incidents such as the Falls Curfew, the Ballymurphy massacre, Bloody Sunday and the Miami Showband killings. However some nationalists, especially Roman Catholic priests, began to attend Remembrance Day events as a way to connect with the unionist community. In 1987 a bomb was detonated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army just before a Remembrance Sunday ceremony in Enniskillen, killing eleven people. The bombing was widely condemned and attendance at Remembrance events, by both nationalists and unionists, rose in the following years.[19]
Observance in other Countries

France & Belgium
Armistice Day (November 11) is a national holiday in France and Belgium. It commemorates the armistice signed between the Allies and Germany at Compiègne, France, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning — the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month." Armistice Day is one the most important military celebrations in France, since it was a major French victory and the French paid a heavy price in blood to achieve it. The First World War was considered in France as the "Great Patriotic War". [20] Almost all French villages feature memorials dedicated to those fallen during the conflict.[21] In France the blue cornflower (bleuet) is used symbolically rather than the poppy.
The German national day of mourning is the secular public holiday of Volkstrauertag[22], which since 1952 has been observed two Sundays before the first Sunday of Advent;[23] in practice this is the Sunday closest to the 16th of November. The anniversary of the Armistice itself is not observed in Germany.[24]
Each of the major German churches has its own festivals for commemorating the dead, observed in November: All Souls Day in the case of the Roman Catholic Church, Ewigkeitssonntag, or "Eternity Sunday" in the case of the Lutheran church.
Hong Kong
Though not a public holiday, the Remembrance Sunday is observed in Hong Kong, and is marked by a multi-faith memorial service at the Cenotaph in Central, Hong Kong. The service is organised by the Hong Kong Ex-servicemen Association, and is attended by various Government officials and the representatives of various religious traditions (such as the Anglican Church, the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Buddhist community, the Taoist community, the Muslim community and the Sikh community).

The Hong Kong Police Band at the memorial service by the Cenotaph in Central, Hong Kong
Although Hong Kong ceased to be part of the Commonwealth of Nations in 1997, the memorial service still resembles those in many other Commonwealth countries. The service includes the sounding of "Last Post", two minutes of silence, the sounding of "Reveille", the laying of wreaths, prayers, and ends with a recitation of the "Ode of Remembrance. The Hong Kong Police Force Pipe Band continues to perform their ceremonial duty at the service. As well members of the Hong Kong Air Cadet Corps (including Ceremonial Squadron), Hong Kong Adventure Corps, Hong Kong Sea Cadet Corps and scouting organizations are in attendance.
In Italy, servicemen who died for the nation are remembered on 4 November, when the ceasefire that followed the Armistice of Villa Giusti in 1918 began. Since 1977, this day has not been a public holiday; now, many services are held on the first Sunday of November.[25]
In the Republic of Ireland, Armistice or Remembrance Day is not a public holiday. In July there is a National Day of Commemoration for Irish men and women who died in past wars, such as the Irish War of Independence and on service with the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces. Remembrance Sunday is marked by a ceremony in St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin, which the President of Ireland attends.[26][27][28] In the Republic, the wearing of the Poppy is generally frowned upon due to the British Army's actions during the Irish War of Independence and their role during the Troubles. A very small number of citizens from the Republic of Ireland still enlist in the British Army, [29][30][31] however the British Army is explicitly prohibited from actively recruiting under the Defence Act, 1954. [32] [33] The Irish National War Memorial Gardens in Dublin is dedicated to the memory of the 49,400 Irish soldiers who were killed in action in World War I.[34].
The Netherlands
See also: Remembrance of the Dead
In the Netherlands, Remembrance Day is commemorated annually on 4 May. It is not a public holiday. Throughout the country, military personnel and civilians fallen in various conflicts are remembered. The main ceremonies are at the Waalsdorpervlakte near The Hague, the Grebbeberg near Wageningen and at Dam Square in Amsterdam. 2 minutes of silence are observed at 8.00pm. Remembrance Day is followed by Liberation Day on 5 May.
Main article: Polish Independence Day
November 11 is a public holiday in Poland called Independence Day, as ending of First World War allowed Polish people to regain freedom and unity of their country after over a hundred years of partitions. Major events include laying flowers on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier by members of the government and highest authorities, other public ceremonies as well as church services and school celebrations.
United States
See also: Veterans Day
Veterans Day is commemorated in the United States on 11 November, and is both a federal holiday and a state holiday in all states. However, the function of the observance elsewhere is more closely matched by Memorial Day in May. In the United States, and some other allied nations, 11 November was formerly known as Armistice Day; in the United States it was given its new name in 1954 at the end of the Korean War. Most schools, particularly more middle and high schools than some elementary schools, throughout the U.S. usually hold assemblies on a school day prior, with various presentations recognizing teachers and staff members who served in one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, as well as remembering the U.S. troops who died in past and present wars, and some patriotic music by a school choir, band and/or orchestra, including songs from a musical used as a tribute to the troops (e.g., "Bring Him Home" from Les Misérables).

Wreaths of artificial poppies used as a symbol of remembrance

Poppies are sold every year as an act of remembrance to fallen soldiers at war
The poppy's significance to Remembrance Day is a result of Canadian military physician John McCrae's poem In Flanders Fields. The poppy emblem was chosen because of the poppies that bloomed across some of the worst battlefields of Flanders in World War I, their red colour an appropriate symbol for the bloodshed of trench warfare. An American YMCA Overseas War Secretaries employee, Moina Michael, was inspired to make 25 silk poppies based on McCrae's poem, which she distributed to attendees of the YMCA Overseas War Secretaries' Conference.[35] She then made an effort to have the poppy adopted as a national symbol of remembrance, and succeeded in having the National American Legion Conference adopt it two years later. At this conference, a Frenchwoman, Anna E. Guérin, was inspired to introduce the widely used artificial poppies given out today. In 1921 she sent her poppy sellers to London, England, where they were adopted by Field Marshall Douglas Haig, a founder of the Royal British Legion, as well as by veterans' groups in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The annual selling of poppies is the major source of income for the Royal British Legion in the UK. The poppy has no particular price, it is sold for a donation or the price may be suggested by the individual vendor. The black plastic centre of the poppy was marked "Haig Fund" until 1994.[36]
A small number of people choose to wear white poppies to indicate a preference to look forward to peace rather than backward at the sacrifice. Those who wear the white poppy have, since their introduction in the nineteen twenties, expressed their desire for peaceful alternatives to military action, which may be due to a variety of reasons from the religious, the humanitarian, legal or economic. White Poppies may be home-made, or they are sold by the Peace Pledge Union [37] in the U.K. The Co-operative Women's Guild produced White Poppies in 1933, along with white poppy wreaths.[38] Some of the early white poppies were made of white silk and silver, with the word PEACE across the metal button at the centre.
The Royal Canadian Legion suggests that poppies be worn on the left lapel, or as close to the heart as possible.[39] In Canada, the poppy is the official symbol of remembrance worn during the two weeks prior to November 11, after having been adopted in 1921.
The Canadian poppies consist of two pieces of moulded plastic covered with flocking with a pin to attach them to clothing. The head portion of the pin is bent at an angle in a simple unusual design that requires a unique machine at manufacturing. Originally the poppies were manufactured with a black centre ever since their original design in 1922. From 1980 to 2002 the centres were changed to green to represent the green hills of Flanders. Current designs are black only; this reversion caused notable confusion and controversy to those unfamiliar with the original design.[40]
An older poppy design, in use until c. 1970, involved three pieces: red, then a black piece in the current style but made of felt, then a small circle of green felt in the very centre.
Until 1996, poppies were made by disabled veterans in Canada, but they have since been made by a private contractor.[41]
In 2007, sticker versions of the poppy were developed for children, the elderly, and health care and food industry workers. The stickers were not designed to replace the lapel pin poppies, but merely to allow those who could not normally wear one to do so safely.[42]
Sri Lanka
In Sri Lanka - in the inter-war years, there were rival sales of yellow Suriya (portia tree) flowers by the Suriya-Mal Movement on Remembrance Day, since funds from poppy sales were not used for Sri Lankan ex-service personnel but were repatriated to Britain. However, nowadays poppy sales are used for indigenous ex-service personnel who have been disabled in the ongoing civil war.
United Kingdom
In England, Wales, and Northern Ireland the poppies are mostly paper representatives of the flat Earl Haig variety with a leaf, mounted on a plastic stem. These are the ones vigorously sold on the streets by volunteers in the weeks before Remembrance Day. Wearers require a separate pin to attach the poppy to their clothing. There are also some double red poppies, and also white poppies which are worn as a hope for peace. These are primarily sold by the Peace Pledge Union but some people make their own as they are harder to find. Some members of the public will wear both a red and a white poppy, but usually it is one or the other. In Scotland the poppies are curled and have four petals with no leaf and are sold by Poppyscotland. In Northern Ireland, because of the perception that the poppy honours soldiers of the British Armed Forces and because of The Troubles, it is worn primarily by members of the Unionist and the Protestant community.
Other Countries
In Australia and New Zealand the poppies are curled at the petals with no leaf.
In Hong Kong, poppies are sold on the streets by members of the Hong Kong Ex-Servicemen Association on Remembrance Sunday. The poppies are mostly paper representatives of the flat Earl Haig variety with a leaf, mounted on a plastic stem, and resembles those sold in the United Kingdom. The poppies are also worn by many attendants of the multi-faith memorial service by the Cenotaph in Central, Hong Kong on Remembrance Sunday.
In the United States of America, the American Legion distributes crepe-paper poppies in exchange for contributions. "Poppy Day" is usually the same as or near Memorial Day in May.[43] However, many Legion groups also make poppies available around November 11.

How Did You Spend Your Day?

Ben5463 Posted: Nov 11th 2010

At School we were going to go the the war memorial in our village but it rained!
So we had to have are service in the school hall!

wallace05man Posted: Nov 11th 2010

we had a 2 minute silence in the middle of basket ball

timmythesheep848 Posted: Nov 12th 2010

At school we had 2 minutes silence in Maths.

But heres some news on what happened in Central London yesterday at 11:

Muslims broke the 2 minute silence in Central London with banners holding "British Soldiers Burn In (Opposite of Heaven) & the burning of a poppy. if you don't like us english people paying respect for our brave fighters then you know where the airport is.

Ben5463 Posted: Nov 12th 2010

Wat? Is That True TTS!

Clay Fighter Posted: Nov 12th 2010

Great Copy and pasting skills.
at 11:11 am we had a minutes silence during economics.

timmythesheep848 Posted: Nov 12th 2010

Yeah it is Ben google it ;)

Yeah CF i copied it but edited it...

Gromits little bro Posted: Nov 12th 2010

Wiki? ugh.

ajmole Posted: Nov 12th 2010

I could tell it was from Wikipedia the second I saw '2.1'. Try explaining it yourself, some people are allergic to Wikipedia! LOL.

wallace05man Posted: Nov 13th 2010

i saw that muslim thing on youtube! :O how would they like it if we all came over to their country and started extremely disrespecting them:O

Ben5463 Posted: Nov 17th 2010

Oh Soz!

PoisonIvy Posted: Nov 18th 2010

I'd never heard about it until after it went by. Apparently we observe it here in Australia, but ... not me :\ .

von acka Posted: Nov 29th 2010

i live down under

Clay Fighter Posted: Nov 30th 2010

Same here Von Acka!!:D

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